Everyone is wondering at the rapid development of science and technology, yet few may realize the prosperity is benefited from the development of the Network. And when talk about Network, we cannot get away from the topic of Fiber-Optic Communications Technology.
In actual lives, the words come up with when everyone hears the term Optic Fiber and Cable are exclusive and high-end atmospheric grade. Many people don’t know what it can do. But in fact, it is closely related to our daily life.
Optical fiber cable is manufactured to meet the performance specifications of optical, mechanism and environment. It uses one or more optical fibers placed in a sheath as a transmission medium, thus it can be used individually or in groups as a communication cable assembly. The plastic sheath, plastic protective sleeve and optical fiber (glass filament as thin as a hair) are the main components of optical cable, which may explain why generally the cables are not be worth recycling, since there are no metals such as gold, silver, copper and aluminum in them.
l Introduction of ADSS Cable
ADSS is one of the most common optic cables.
ADSS fiber optic cable (full name: All-Dielectric Self-Supporting optic fiber cable). All-dielectric and self-supporting respectively refer to the material of the optical cable and the self-reinforced construction of the optical cable that can not only bear its own weight but also withstand external loads. Digging deeper into its name, it shows us its unique usage environment and key technologies.
It features tension resistance, high insulation, thin diameter, light weight, easy to construct, metal-free, no inductance and economical. It belongs to the category of composite optical cable, which is made by winding the optical fiber bundle around the central reinforcing member, and then passing through insulation, waterproofing, reinforcement, sheathing and other protective measures in sequence.
Usually the cable is used in the environment of high voltage and strong electricity and overhead power towers, so it must have the characteristics of strong electricity resistance and matching pendants. Therefore, the selection and installation of supporting hardware, the determination of suspension points and the mechanical design of optical cables are the three key technologies of ADSS optical cables.
lADSS cable structure:
1. Central tube structure ADSS optical cable is to place in a PBT tube filled with a certain length of water blocking paste in the ADSS optical cable. In the same time wrap it with suitable spinning according to the required tensile strength wire, and then extrude polyethylene (≤110KV electric field strength) or (≥100KV electric field strength) sheath.
2. Layer-stranded structure ADSS optical cable has internal optical fiber and water-blocking grease in the loose tube of the optical cable, and then wind different loose tubes around the central strength member (usually FRP). It also needs to be packaged upon request. The spun yarn is finally extruded with polyethylene or sheath. According to the environmental conditions of ADSS optical cable laying, ADSS optical cable can be produced with single-layer PE or AT sheath, double-layer PE or AT sheath. The ADSS optical cable loose tube of this structure is fully twisted with the reinforcing parts filled with grease in the middle to ensure its waterproof performance, and there are various anti-side pressure measures to meet different needs.
Compared with ADSS optical cables of two different structures, the central tube structure ADSS optical cable has the advantages of small diameter, light weight, good waterproof performance, low price, and convenient for installation. While layer-twisted structure cable, there are many laying methods, which are suitable for various occasions such as overhead, direct burial, pipeline, and underwater. The remaining length cable is easy to control. However, the price of the layer-twisted structure is also more expensive for there are more optical fiber in it.
l ADSS cable main parameters:
Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), Every Day Strength (EDS) and Maximum Allowable Tension (MAT) are the main manifestations of the mechanical properties of ADSS cables.
(1) Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), also known as breaking force or rated tensile strength, mainly refers to the calculated value of the total strength of the rotating bearing part. And in practice, the calculated value of fracture force should be ≥95%, and this reference is not optional.
(2) Annual Average Operating Tension (EDS), also known as Daily Average Stress. The theoretically calculated tension of the optical cable (in the absence of ice, wind and at average annual temperature), which can also be regarded as the average tension in the long-term operation of the ADSS. At the same time, the fatigue aging parameters and anti-vibration design of the optical cable are also determined by the EDS data.
(3) The maximum allowable tension (MAT) refers to the tension that the optical cable bears under the total load in a theoretically designed weather condition. The allowable span of the optical cable under this condition can be calculated from this parameter under both controlled sag and meteorological conditions. It can be seen that MAT is not only an important proof of the strain-stress characteristics of ADSS optical cables, but also an important basis for calculating the vertical span.
(4) Ultimate operating tension (UES) can also be called special use tension, which means that during the effective lifetime of the optical cable, when the design load is exceeded, the maximum tension of the optical cable may be exceeded. Therefore, this parameter can make the ADSS optical cable operate reliably within its service life.
l ADSS cable function:
All-dielectric self-supporting ADSS (All Dielectric Self Supporting) optical cable can provide fast and economical transmission channels in power communication systems. Relatively speaking, OPGW (Optical fiber composite Ground Wire) is more expensive than ADSS cable in many applications, and ADSS cable is easier to install. Therefore, it is a must to use ADSS optical cable towers to erect power lines in some places.
lADSS cable features:
① Light weight and small cable diameter (which can reduce the influence of wind, ice, and the load on supports and towers);
② Strong temperature adaptability and small linear expansion coefficient, which makes it possible to withstand various harsh environmental conditions;
③ No electromagnetic interference even under high intensity electric field;
④ Available for overhead situation;
⑤ large span (the maximum span exceeds 1000 meters);
⑥ Lightening-Proof. Because the structure of the optical cable is non-metallic, it has good insulation performance and can protect against lightning;
⑦ Excellent tensile performance and temperature characteristics, which is ensured by the precise control of fiber optic excess length and cable twisting pitch;
⑧ The adopted aramid armoring process greatly improves the tensile strength of the optical cable.
⑨ It is recognized as the best performance among communication optical cables, because it can be constructed without electricity;
⑩ Convenient for maintaining, because ADSS cable and power line are independent from each other.
l ADSS optical cable application range
ADSS optical cable has a wide range of applications, mainly used in overhead high-voltage transmission systems and occasions requiring large spans; and also in the areas of strong electric field, lightning, cold weather, and new and old power lines, erected on the same tower as the power line. In addition, based on the safety properties of ADSS optical cables, the use of ADSS optical cables in the OPGW system as the lead-in and lead-out optical cables of the relay station can effectively solve the problem of power isolation. ADSS optical cable can also be used in optical fiber communication system as the transmission optical cable of high voltage (110kV-220kV) power network, and in 6kV~35kV~180kV distribution network.
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